Our process helps Canada achieve sustainable development solutions that integrate environmental and economic considerations to ensure the lasting prosperity and well-being of our nation.


We rigorously research and conduct high quality analysis on issues of sustainable development. Our thinking is original and thought provoking.


We convene opinion leaders and experts from across Canada around our table to share their knowledge and diverse perspectives. We stimulate debate and integrate polarities. We create a context for possibilities to emerge.


We generate ideas and provide realistic solutions to advise governments, Parliament and Canadians. We proceed with resolve and optimism to bring Canada’s economy and environment closer together.

7.9 References

Reality Check: The State of Climate Progress in Canada

32nd Yukon Legislative Assembly. 2011. Report of the Select Committee on the Safe Operation and Use of Off-road Vehicles.

Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. The Atlantic Energy Gateway – Making Atlantic Canada a Leader in Clean and Renewable Energy 2009. Available from

Auditor General of Alberta. 2011. Report of the Auditor General of Alberta – November 2011.

British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines. 2012. Renewable and Low Carbon Fuel Requirements Regulation.

British Columbia Ministry of Environment. 2010. British Columbia Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 2008.

British Columbia Ministry of Environment. 2011. Landfill Gas Management Regulation.

British Columbia Ministry of Environment. Reporting Regulation – Greenhouse Gas Reduction (Cap and Trade) Act NDa. Available from

British Columbia Ministry of Environment. Community Energy and Emissions Inventory NDb. Available from

Canada Gazette. 2010a. Passenger Automobile and Light Truck Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations (Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement).

Canada Gazette. 2010b. Renewable Fuels Regulations (Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement).

Canada Gazette. 2011. Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Generation of Electricity Regulations (Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement).

Canada NewsWire. 2012. Canada and Nova Scotia working together to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. About CCME ND. Available from

Chalifour, N. 2008. Making Federalism Work for Climate Change: Canada’s Division of Powers over Carbon Taxes. National Journal of Constitutional Law 22 (2):119-214.

The Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Global Security – Conference Statement. 1988. Available from

Climate Change and Emissions Management Corporation. ND. 2010-2013 Business Plan.

Council of the Federation. About the Council ND. Available from

Dachis, B, and J Carr. 2011. Zapped: The High Cost of Ontario’s Renewable Electricity Subsidies. C.D. Howe Institute.

Department of Sustainable Development. 2003. Nunavut Climate Change Strategy.

Développement durable Environnement et Parcs. Cap and trade system for greenhouse gas emission allowances ND. Available from

Environment Canada. 1990. Canada’s Green Plan: Canada’s Green Plan for a Healthy Environment.

Environment Canada. 1995. National Action Program on Climate Change.

Environment Canada. 1999. Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1997: Emissions and Removals with Trends.

Environment Canada. 2007. A Climate Change Plan for the Purposes of the Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act.

Environment Canada. 2008. Turning the Corner: Regulatory Framework for Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

Environment Canada. 2010a. News Release: Canada Announces a New Federal Sustainable Development Strategy.

Environment Canada. Regulatory Framework Consultation Document describing key elements being considered for future regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions from new on-road heavy-duty vehicles and engines of the 2014 and later model years 2010b. Available from

Environment Canada. 2011a. Canada’s Emissions Trends.

Environment Canada. 2011b. National Inventory Report: Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada 1990-2009.

Environment Canada. Backgrounder: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Electricity Sector 2011c. Available from

Environment Canada. Statement by Minister Kent 2011d. Available from

Environment Canada. Current Regulation: Regulations Amending the Renewable Fuels Regulations 2011e. Available from

Environment Canada. Gazette I Publication of the Proposed Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulations 2012. Available from

Environment Canada. Canada’s Domestic Action NDa. Available from

Environment Canada. Backgrounder: Regulating On-Road GHG Emissions NDb. Available from

Environmental Commissioner of Ontario. 2011. Meeting Responsibilities: Creating Opportunities – Annual Greenhouse Gas Progress Report 2011.

Federation of Canadian Municipalities. Partners for Climate Protection Members 2012. Available from

Federation of Canadian Municipalities, and Local Governments for Sustainability – ICLEI. 2012. Outcomes from the 2011 National PCP Measures Report. In Sustainable Communities Conference and Trade Show.

Finances Québec. 2012. Budget 2012-2013 Québec and Climate Change: A Greener Environment.

Friends of the Oldman River Society v. Canada (Minister of Transport). 1992. In 1 S.C.R. 3 at para. 85.

Government of Alberta. 2008. Alberta’s 2008 Climate Change Strategy: Responsibility / Leadership / Action.

Government of Alberta. 2010. Talk About BioEnergy.

Government of Alberta. 2011. Environment: Annual Report 2010-2011.

Government of Alberta. Climate Change and Emissions Management Fund ND. Available from

Government of British Columbia. 2008. British Columbia’s Climate Change Action Plan.

Government of British Columbia. 2010. British Columbia: Climate Action for the 21st Century.

Government of British Columbia. ND. The BC Energy Plan: A Vision for Clean Energy Leadership.

Government of Canada. 2000. Government of Canada Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change.

Government of Canada. 2002. Climate Change Achieving Our Commitments Together: Climate Change Plan for Canada.

Government of Canada. 2005. Project Green: Moving Forward on Climate Change: A Plan for Honouring our Kyoto Commitment.

Government of Canada. 2008. 2008 Speech from the Throne.

Government of Canada. News Releases: Canada and the U.S. work together on Clean Energy Dialogue 2009. Available from

Government of Canada. 2011. A Strong Partnership: Energy Relationship between Canada and the United States.

Government of Manitoba. 2010. Manitoba’s Report on Climate Change: Progress Update on Manitoba’s Emission Reductions.

Government of Manitoba. ND. Public Consultation on a Proposed Cap and Trade System for Manitoba.

Government of New Brunswick. 2007. Take Action: Climate Change Action Plan 2007-2012.

Government of New Brunswick. 2011. New Brunswick and Climate Change: On Track to 2012 – 2010-2011 Progress Report Summary.

Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Lower Churchill Project – News Release 2010a. Available from

Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. 2010b. Responding to Climate Change in Newfoundland and Labrador Public Discussion Document.

Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. 2011. Charting Our Course: Climate Change Action Plan 2011.

Government of Nova Scotia. 2009. Toward a Greener Future: Nova Scotia’s Climate Change Action Plan.

Government of Nova Scotia. 2010. Voluntary Carbon Emissions Offset Fund Act.

Government of Ontario. 2007. Go Green: Ontario’s Action Plan on Climate Change.

Government of Ontario. 2009. Climate Change Action Plan: Annual Report 2008-09.

Government of Ontario. Phasing Out Coal Power in Ontario 2010. Available from

Government of Québec. 2008. Québec and Climate Change: A Challenge for the Future.

Government of Québec. 2010. 2006-2012 Climate Change Action Plan Fourth Annual Report: Blending the Environment with the Economy.

Government of Québec. ND. Regulation Respecting a Cap-and-Trade System for Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowances.

Government of Saskatchewan. 2007. Saskatchewan Energy and Climate Change Plan 2007.

Government of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan and Montana Join Forces on Carbon Capture and Storage 2009a. Available from

Government of Saskatchewan. 2009b. Bill No. 126: An Act Respecting the Management and Reduction of Greenhouse Gases and Adaptation to Climate Change.

Government of Saskatchewan. 2010a. An Act Respecting the Management and Reduction of Greenhouse Gases and Adaptation to Climate Change.

Government of Saskatchewan. 2010b. Saskatchewan Climate Change Plan. Presentation at the Canadian Energy Forum, February 9, 2010.

Government of Saskatchewan. 2011a. Saskatchewan’s 2011 State of the Environment Report.

Government of Saskatchewan. 2011b. Saskatchewan’s 2011 State of the Environment Report.

Government of Saskatchewan. NDa. Go Green: Programs for Homeowners / Residential Users.

Government of Saskatchewan. NDb. Saskatchewan Biofuels Investments Opportunity Program (SaskBio): Media Backgrounder.

Government of Saskatchewan. NDc. Go Green: Transportation.

Government of Saskatchewan. NDd. Backgrounder: Memorandum of Understanding Between the Province of Saskatchewan and the State of Victoria.

Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science. 2011. Green Economy.

Harrison, K. 2012. Intergovernmental Relations and Climate Policy: Lessons from Comparitive Federalism, report commissioned by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007.

Jaccard, M, and C. Bataille. 2004. If Sustainability is Expensive, What Roles for Business and Government? A Case Study of Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policy in Canada. Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis 30-31:149-183.

Jaccard, M, N Rivers, C Bataille, R Murphy, J Nyboer, and B Sadownik. 2006. Burning Our Money to Warm the Planet: Canada’s Ineffective Efforts to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

Jaffe, A, R Newell, and R Stavins. 1999. Energy efficient technologies and climate change policies. In Climate Issue Brief No. 19: Resources for the Future.

Khanna, M. 2001. Non-mandatory Approaches to Environmental Protection. Journal of Economic Surveys 15 (3):291-324.

Legislative Assembly of Ontario. 2009. Bill 150: Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009.

Liberal Party of Canada. 1993. Red Book: Creating Opportunity – The Liberal Plan for Canada.

Live Smart British Columbia. ND. Carbon Neutral B.C.: Transforming B.C.’s Public Sector.

Lucas, A R, and J Yearsley. 2011. The Constitutionality of Federal Climate Change Legislation. University of Calgary School of Public Policy Research Papers 4 (15).

May, E. 2002. From Montreal to Kyoto, How we got from here to there – or not. Policy Options.

National Energy Board. 2011a. Canada’s Energy Future: Energy Supply and Demand Projections to 2035.

National Energy Board. 2011b. Energy Use in Canada’s North: An Overview of Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut – Energy Facts.

National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. 2007. Getting to 2050: Canada’s Transition to a Low-Emission Future: Advice for Long-Term Reductions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. 2009a. Achieving 2050: A Carbon Pricing Policy for Canada.

National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. 2009b. True North: Adapting Infrastructure to Climate Change in Northern Canada.

National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. 2011. Response of the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy to its Obligations under the Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act.

Natural Resources Canada. 2011. ecoENERGY Technology Initiative.

Navius Research Inc. 2012. Economic Modelling of Provincial, Territorial and Federal Climate Change Policies, report commissioned by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy.

New Brunswick Department of Energy. 2011. The New Brunswick Energy Blueprint.

New Brunswick Energy Commission. 2011. Final Report 2010-2011.

North America 2050. North America 2050: A Partnership for Progress ND. Available from

Northwest Territories Environment and Natural Resources. 2011. A Greenhouse Gas Strategy for the Northwest Territories 2011 – 2015.

Nova Scotia Department of Energy. 2009. Toward a Greener Future: Nova Scotia’s 2009 Energy Strategy.

Nova Scotia Department of Energy. 2010. Renewable Electricity Plan.

Nova Scotia Department of Environment. 2009. An Approach to Regulating Electricity Sector Greenhouse Gas and AIr Pollutant Emissions in Nova Scotia: A Discussion Paper.

2006. Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development. Number 016, 1st Session, 39th Parliament, Thursday, October 5.

O’Meara, D. 2012. Cancellation of major Alberta carbon capture project ‘a big setback’. Calgary Herald, April 27.

Ontario Power Authority. 2010. Feed-in Tariff Program: Program Overview.

Ontario Power Authority. Conservation Fund ND. Available from

Pacific Carbon Trust. Who We Are NDa. Available from

Pacific Carbon Trust. Offset Showcase NDb. Available from

Prince Edward Island Department of Environment Energy and Forestry. 2008. Prince Edward Island and Climate Change: A Strategy for Reducing the Impacts of Global Warming.

Province of Nova Scotia. 2010. Renewable Electricity Regulations made under Section 5 of the Electricity Act.

Rabe, B. 2012. The Evolving American Approach to Climate Change: Consequences for Canada, report commissioned by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy.

RBC Economics. 2012. Provincial Outlook March 2012.

Saskatchewan Housing Corporation. ND. Know the Facts: Saskatchewan Home Energy Improvement Program (SHEIP) For Low and Moderate-Income Homeowners.

Saskatchewan Ministry of Environment. 2012. Exploring the New Saskatchewan Environmental Code: A Framework for Effective Environmental Protection through Innovation.

Saskatchewan Ministry of Environment. Solar Heating Initiative for Today ND. Available from

SaskEnergy. Energy Efficiency Programs NDa. Available from

SaskEnergy. Commercial Boiler Program NDb. Available from

SaskPower. Boundary Dam Integrated Carbon Capture and Storage Project NDa. Available from

SaskPower. CCS in Saskatchewan NDb. Available from

Specified Gas Emitters Regulation, Alta Reg 139/2007.

Statistics Canada. ND. GDP – Table 384-0002 – Expenditure based annual, chained.

The Pembina Institute. 2011. Responsible Action? An Assessment of Alberta’s Greenhouse Gas Policies.

Western Climate Initiative. 2008. Design Recommendations for the WCI Regional Cap-and-Trade Program.

Western Climate Initiative. Frequently Asked Questions 2012a. Available from

Western Climate Initiative. History 2012b. Available from

Wigle, R, and N Rivers. 2012. Overlapping Federal-Provincial Climate Policies, report commissioned by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy.

Yukon Government. 2009. Yukon Government Climate Change Action Plan.